Small Grains and Forage

Small Grains Growth Stages

Stage 1
3-Leaf Stage: The first two leaves are completely developed, and the middle, or third, leaf is partially developed.

Stage 2
The tillers (sometimes called side shoots) are beginning to form.

Stage 3
Tillers have formed and are in their primary growth stage.

Stage 4
Tillers have ended their growth and the leaf sheaths (the lower part of the leaf which surrounds the stem) begin to form.

Stage 5
Leaf sheaths are strongly erected and the stems formed start to grow in length.

Stage 6
One-Joint Stage: The first joint develops near the soil surface and can be felt inside the stem. The joints, or nodes, produce a swelled appearance in the lower portion of the stem.

Stage 7
Two-Joint Stage: The second joint has formed, marking the beginning of the reproductive phase.

Stage 8
Appearance of the last leaf.

Stage 9
Ligule Stage: The ligule (a membrane at the junction of the leaf sheath and leaf base) of the last leaf is fully developed, and the leaf sheath is swollen at the level of the capsuled head of grain.

Stage 10
"Boot" Stage: At this stage, the immature head of grain presses the rolled leaf sheath apart and becomes visible.

Stage 10.1
Head Emergence Stage

Stage 10.5
Flowering Stage

Stage 11
Ripening State (includes "dough" stage)

Small Grains Growth Stages Diagram